Ontario

Children’s Aid Societies in Ontario have the exclusive mandate under the Child and Family Services Act (CFSA) to protect children who have been or are at risk of being abused and/or neglected by their caregivers, to provide for their care and supervision where necessary and to place children for adoption (CFSA, 1990). A total of 46 Children’s Aid Societies are specifically designated by the Minister of Children and Youth Services to investigate child abuse and neglect and take the necessary steps to care for children and youth in need of protection.  Seven are designated Aboriginal societies and 3 serve religious communities. Children’s Aid Societies are independent legal entities (corporations run by Boards of Directors) or Indian Bands (that operate under the Indian Act) and are accountable to the communities they serve. In addition to the CFSA, the Ontario Child Welfare Eligibility Spectrum and Child Protection Standards guide child protection workers at each phase of service delivery. For more information, visit the information sheet on Ontario's child welfare system.
 

Ontario - Statistics

Child Maltreatment Investigations in Ontario, 2008* and 2013**

  2008 2013
Child population (0-15) 2,382,035 2,349,600
Number of child maltreatment investigations 128,748 125,281
Incidence of child maltreatment investigations per 1000 children 54.05 53.32

Type of Child Maltreatment Investigation in Ontario, 2013**

  Number Rate per 1,000 children Percent
Maltreatment Investigation 97,951 41.69 78%
Risk Investigation 27,330 11.63 22%

Categories of Substantiated Child Maltreatment Investigations in Ontario, 2013**

Category of Maltreatment Number Rate per 1,000 children Percent
Physical Abuse 5,770 2.46 13%
Sexual Abuse 848 0.36 2%
Neglect 10,386 4.42 24%
Emotional Maltreatment 5,620 2.39 13%
Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence 20,443 8.70 48%

Placement in Child Maltreatment Investigations in Ontario, 2008* and 2013**

  2008 # 2008 Rate 2013 # 2013 Rate
No Placement 121,436 50.98 121,020 51.51
Informal Kinship Care 3,616 1.52 1,874 0.80
Formal Placement 3,696 1.55 2,387 1.02

* Fallon, B., Trocmé, N., MacLaurin, B., Sinha, V., Black, T., Felstiner, C., Schumaker, K., Van Wert, M., Herbert, A., Petrowski, N., Daciuk, J., Lee, B., DuRoss, C. & Johnston, A. (2010). Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 (OIS‑2008). Toronto, ON: Child Welfare Research Portal. Retrieved from http://cwrp.ca/publications/2293

** Fallon, B., Van Wert, M., Trocmé, N., MacLaurin, B., Sinha, V., Lefebvre, R., Allan, K., Black, T., Lee, B., Rha, W., Smith, C., & Goel, S. (2015). Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS‑2013). Toronto, ON: Child Welfare Research Portal. Retrieved from http://cwrp.ca/publications/OIS-2013

§ Child welfare services fall under the jurisdiction of provincial and territorial authorities, making it difficult to compile statistics at the national level. The most notable variations between provinces include mandate variation by jurisdiction with respect to the age to which children are eligible for services, differences in the length of time a child can receive out-of-home care and the definition of out-of-home care.

Title Authors Year Type
Child custody / access disputes in child maltreatment-related investigations in Ontario in 2008

Theoduloz, Ricardo 
Lefebvre, Rachael  
Saini, Michael
Trocmé, Nico

2014 Information sheet
Ontario’s child welfare system

Wegner-Lohin, Jaime
Kyte, Alicia
Trocmé, Nico

2014 Information sheet
The Other Side of the Door: A Practice Guide for Child Welfare Professionals working with First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples

Ontario Association of Children's Aid Societies (OACAS)

2014 Report
Maltreatment-related Investigations with a Grandparent as a Primary Caregiver in Ontario in 2008

Hollingshead, Matthew
Lefebvre, Rachael
Van Wert, Melissa
Fallon, Barbara

2014 Information sheet
Maltreatment-related Investigations Involving Primary Caregivers with a History of Being in Foster Care and/or Group Home Care in Ontario in 2008

Brady, Eavan
Lefebvre, Rachael
Van Wert, Melissa
Fallon, Barbara

2014 Information sheet
OIS-2008: Examination of Investigations Referred to Child Welfare Authorities by Schools

Ma, Jennifer
Van Wert, Melissa
Smith, Carrie
Fallon, Barbara

2012 Information sheet
OIS-2008: Contextual Factors to Consider when Interpreting Findings

Van Wert, Melissa
Ma, Jennifer
Smith, Carrie
Fallon, Barbara

2012 Information sheet
OIS-2008: Examination of Investigations Referred to Child Welfare Authorities by Police

Fallon, Barbara
Ma, Jennifer
Smith, Carrie
Van Wert, Melissa

2012 Information sheet
OIS-2008: Rates of Out-of-Home Placement in Substantiated Maltreatment Investigations

Smith, Carrie
Van Wert, Melissa
Ma, Jennifer
Fallon, Barbara

2012 Information sheet
Primary Category of Substantiated Child Maltreatment in Ontario in 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008

Van Wert, Melissa
Smith, Carrie
Ma, Jennifer
Fallon, Barbara

2012 Information sheet

Ontario - Legislation

Last Name First Namesort icon Organization Province/Territory
Ismaila Afisi McMaster University Ontario
Leschied Alan W. University of Western Ontario Ontario
Macpherson Alison K. York University Ontario
D'Angiulli Amedeo Carleton University Ontario
Taylor Andrew Taylor Newberry Consulting Ontario
Fudge-Schormans Ann McMaster University Ontario
Cummings Anne University of Western Ontario Ontario
Shlonsky Aron University of Toronto / University of Melbourne (AU) Ontario
Fallon Barbara University of Toronto Ontario
Lewis Barry Ontario Commission to Promote Sustainable Child Welfare Ontario
Kimberly Brisebois Windsor-Essex Children's Aid Society Ontario
Leslie Bruce Catholic Children's Aid Society of Toronto Ontario
King Bryn University of Toronto Ontario
Root Carol Chrysalis Centre Ontario
Stalker Carol A. Wilfred Laurier University Ontario
Smith Carrie King's University College at University of Western Ontario Ontario
Neff Charlotte Laurentian University Ontario
Regehr Cheryl University of Toronto Ontario
Wekerle Christine McMaster University Ontario
Blackstock Cindy First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada Ontario